Skarb z epoki brązu z Nowego Łowicza na Pomorzu
wydanie po śmierci Autorki
Data publikacji: 31-12-2001
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2001;LV(55):21–30
A hoard of bronze objects was discovered in 1835 at Nowy Łowicz (former Neu Lobitz, Kr. Dramburg), gm. Kalisz Pomorski, woj. zachodniopomorskie in Western Pomerania during the construction of asheepfold. In 1896 Baroness Anna Sylvia von Wangenheim presented the finds to the collection of the Berlin Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte where – except for a number of artifacts that were lost – they remain to this day. First information on the hoard was published by A. Kühne (1883, 31f., 327, 330, pl. 1/3–6), O. Olshausen (1891, 405 f.) and A. Götze (1897, 37 f., fig. 75). A. Stubenrauch gave a description and drawings of hoard contents in his journal (National Museum in Szczecin, archive file no. 226). The deposit from Nowy Łowicz was not included in K. Kersten’s catalogue (1958). J. Kostrzewski (1958, 352, lists 22, 23) cited only a few of its elements in his find lists. Because the deposit from Nowy Łowicz was never fully published it was invoked only rarely in later studies as compared to other Bronze Age hoards. The hoard included a necklace of 26 “double-horned pendants and 23 spiral beads, two lentoid buckle hoops and three clothes fastenings with spiral discs, four buttons, a cylindrical object, two fragments of pins(?) and three fragments of casting waste. The following items were subsequently lost: the fastenings with spiral discs, casting waste and a fragment of apin(?). Necklaces made up of double-horned pendants and spiral beads (Fig. 2) are a local form encountered only in Western Pomerania. Similar specimens are known from Storkowo and grave II at Trzebiatów–Ostrowice. Horned pendants were also recorded at Węgorza and Sucha, while spiral discs on their own are encountered in greater quantity. Necklaces of this type are considered to be an indicator of an archaeological culture group from Bronze Age III in Pomerania (H. J. Eggers 1936, 41, map on p. 44), recently designated as Ostrowice Group (M. Gedl 1990, 30 f., fig. 3). Lentoid buckle hoops and spiral fastenings (Fig. 3a–d) are an element of the so-called Storkowo type buckles (Fig. 3e). Similar buckles were recovered at Storkowo, Trzebiatów–Ostrowice and perhaps also at Buczek. It is not certain whether the larger subsequently lost clothes fastenings with spiral discs was associated with Storkowo type buckles. Buckles of this type, similarly as the pendant and bead necklaces, are characteristic for the Ostrowice Group. It is striking that Storkowo buckles resemble specimens known from Pomerania as late as in BA V. Circular buttons made of sheet bronze (Fig. 4a–d) are a frequent element of Bronze Age grave goods in Pomerania while specimens most similar to the ones in question were discovered in a grave at Banie dated to BA IV. The cylindrical object (Fig. 4e) is most probably a ferrule for hafting the shaft of the so-called halberd or palstave. This is strongly supported by the closest analogies from Niechmirów, woj. łódzkie dated to BA III. Two lengths of bronze wire may be pin fragments (Fig. 4f), a frequent element in Bronze Age assemblages in Pomerania. One of the three bronze and copper casting cakes with projections is a casting jet (Fig. 4g). The hoard from Nowy Łowicz extending the assortment of finds defined as type Storkowo is representative for the Ostrowice Group (Fig. 5) exhibiting the tradition of Tumuli Cultures as well as influences from the Nordic Culture Circle in metallurgy. Chronology of the deposit in question should be examined within the framework of the horizons of finds accepted as typical for this group. Of primary importance for the discussion of the chronology of the Nowy Łowicz hoard are grave goods from burials at Trzebiatów–Ostrowice (H. J. Eggers 1938). The three assemblages finds of Storkowo type were accompanied by Wierzbięcin type armlets. This prompted W. Blajer (1979, 61 f., 68 f.) to date the assemblages to late phase III and the beginning of BA IV. K. Randsborg is inclined to associate finds linked at present with the Ostrowice Group with the so-called period sub-III noting adelay in the emergence of BA IV forms in Western Pomerania and in Mecklemburg as compared to the neighbouring cultures (K. Randsborg 1972, 71, fig. 17, 76). Perhaps the phenomenon may be linked with the process of change in the cultural aspect and the rise of the Lusatian Culture in Pomerania. At present the character of the deposit from Nowy Łowicz cannot be convincingly defined. An argument in favour of its “secular character and treating it as a deposit, perhaps of a craftsman, may be the presence of casting waste and of fragments of larger objects. However in the light of more recent conclusions its religious character cannot be excluded (cf. W. Blajer 1992, 102). The review of archival documentation and verification in the field helped to identify the location of the deposit of bronze objects. Moreover, in the course of excavation conducted by the author in a cemetery of Wielbark Culture at Nowy Łowicz revealed the presence of a previously unknown cemetery of Lusatian Culture (Fig. 1). Graves uncovered so far are dated to the younger Bronze Age (K. Hahuła 1991, 1992) but burials from earlier periods of the Bronze Age may probably be discovered in the future (cf.R.Wołągiewicz 1961), contemporary to the hoard of bronze objects.
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