Niepublikowane materiały z cmentarzyska w Żukczynie, powiat gdański (dawn. Suckschin, Kr. Danziger Höhe) w świetle archiwum Józefa Kostrzewskiego
Anna Strobin 1  
Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, ul. Bielańska 5, PL 80-851 Gdańsk
Data nadesłania: 25-03-2020
Data ostatniej rewizji: 10-04-2020
Data akceptacji: 18-04-2020
Data publikacji: 31-12-2020
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2020;LXXI(71):269–287
The scientific archive of Professor Józef Kostrzewski is kept in the collection of the C. Norwid Provincial and Municipal Public Library in Zielona Góra. Portfolio 13: Pomorze Gdańskie, okres lateński (Gdańsk Pomerania, La Tène Period) consists mostly of unpublished notes and sketches of artefacts, drawn by the researcher, related to archaeological discoveries at the cemeteries at Żukczyn (fmr. Gross Suckczin aka Suckschin), Gdańsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship (cards 568–604). The site at Żukczyn was mentioned in the literature several times. The first news about discoveries in the village comes from the end of the 19th century, when a sword and two spearheads from a cremation grave (Fig. 1) were presented to the Westpreußisches Provinzial-Museum. In 1901, further metal artefacts were collected from the surface of a field (Fig. 2, 3), and Dr. Paul Kumm, museum curator, carried out rescue excavations. As a result, 20 cremation graves were discovered (Fig. 4–11); grave goods, together with stray finds, were turned over to the museum in Gdańsk. In 1945, as a result of warfare, all artefacts from Żukczyn were destroyed or lost. The information from Kostrzewski’s archive indicates that 19 cremation graves and two pit burials (graves X and XI) were discovered at Żukczyn. A total of seven brooches, including types A, J, N (Fig. 4:b.c, 7:a–c) and presumably K (Fig. 4:d) came from graves and stray finds. Swords are represented by eight specimens: five double-edged with iron scabbards (Fig. 2:a.b.d, 3:a, 4:a.b) and three single-edged (Fig. 1, 2:a, 7:c). Two ring buckles (Fig. 3:c) and two hoops found with a sword and scabbard in grave II (Fig. 4:b) should be associated with a sword-belt. Parts of a shield – bosses and their rivets – came from two graves with weapons (Fig. 4:a.b); one boss was a stray find (Fig. 2:c). Spearheads were numerous (13 specimens) (Fig. 1, 2:b.c, 3:b, 4:b, 7:c, 8:b); some of them were decorated (Fig. 1, 2:c). In three cases, they were accompanied by butts (Fig. 3:c, 4:b, 7:c). Tools and utensils included knives (Fig. 4:a.b, 7:d), razors (Fig. 7:a, 8:b), scissors (Fig. 2:d) and pliers (Fig. 2:d). Pottery was discovered in all the graves. The vast majority are vessels of the Oksywie Culture (phases A2–A3); at least two vessels, from graves VI (Fig. 5:c) and XIV (Fig. 6:c), may come already from the Roman Period. The second stage of research at the cemetery at Żukczyn took place in the 1970s. At that time, 134 graves dating from phase A2 of the Late Pre-Roman Period to phase B2/C1 of the Roman Period were discovered. The entire material and documentation of these works are stored in the Archaeological Museum in Gdańsk. Unpublished information concerning the cemetery at Żukczyn, contained in Kostrzewski’s archive, is an important source that complements our knowledge about this necropolis. The inventory numbers of artefacts contained there are also important for attempts to restore former archaeological collections of the Museum in Gdańsk. Verification of sketches of artefacts drawn by Józef Kostrzewski with drawings included in Martin Jahn’s work, Herbert Jankuhn’s scientific archive (Fig. 11) as well as with photographs of artefacts from Żukczyn (cf. Fig. 10) yields positive results. This means that in his graphic documentation, Kostrzewski took into account characteristic and important features of artefacts, which further enhances the value of this source.