Obróbka metali nieżelaznych z grodziska w Dawidgródku nad Horyniem (Białoruś)
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Data publikacji: 31-12-2003
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2003;LVI(56):451-468
Non-ferrous objects recovered from the early medieval fortified settlement at Davyd-Garadok on the Haryn’ included eighteen pieces: a gold finger-ring (Fig. 1 and 3:1), a finger-ring of lead-tin bronze in poor condition and a bell of the same metal (Fig. 3:4 and 3:6 respectively), a lunula pendant, a hoop/brooch (?) and fitting, all three of lead-tin alloy (Fig. 3:2, 3:7 and 3:13 respectively), two lead weights (Fig. 3:9.10) and another similar lead-tin specimen (Fig. 3:8), a brass buckle and bracelet fragment (Fig. 3:5 and 3:3 respectively), a rod of alloy copper (Fig. 3:11), a fragment of a lead-tin wire (Fig. 3:12), a large lump of melted lead-tin bronze (Fig. 2) and four smaller lumps of melted tin bronze with high tin content, so-called white bronze (Fig. 3:14–16.18), perhaps half-product in production of lead-tin bronze. All non-ferrous finds from Davyd-Garadok were analysed by L. Koziorowska of the Spectrography Laboratory of the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw, using the method of UV spectrography (cf Appendix). Analysis of a clay casting melting-pot also discovered at Davyd-Garadok (Fig. 3:17) determined that it was used for melting lead-tin bronze. The main non-ferrous metals in use at Davyd-Garadok were copper, lead, tin and, to a much lesser extent, zinc, an ingredient in brass. All the pieces recovered at the site in question had been produced from the above metals. A comparison of metalography analysis results from Davyd-Garadok and other Ruthenian sites (Toropets, Russia –D. I. Fonyakov 1991; Moscow barrow zone – A. A. Konovalov 1969; Novgorod, Russia – M. V. Sedova 1981; Vaukavysk, Belarus – D. V. Naumov 1969) and Latvia (Ē. Mugurēvičs 1977) revealed the similarity of metallurgic tradition of Toropets and of the Moscow barrow zone with non-ferrous alloy production at Davyd-Garadok evidenced by the presence of tin bronzes. As in Novgorod there was a high percentage of lead and tin alloy pieces (in different proportions) but the Davyd-Garadok inventory lacked lead bronze finds. Similarities to non-ferrous metal production of the Baltic region were slight, due to limited participation of brasses in the inventory at Davyd-Garadok (one of the brasses originates from the older phase of the early medieval period). Gold was used only rarely for making jewellery. In Belarus evidence of gold working is recorded at Navahrudak/Nowogródek (F. D. Gurevič 1981), isolated finds of gold ornaments are known from Minsk, Lukoml’, Stary Barysau, Slonim, Grodna and Vaukavysk (Očerki 1972, p. 153; N. N. Voronin 1954, fig. 99:12–14; Ja. G. Zverugo 1975, p. 40). The working of non-ferrous metals at Davyd-Garadok is supported by the find of a clay crucible, having a volume of 18 cm3 (Fig. 3:17), and melted lumps of metal discovered at the site. Nearly all objects of non-ferrous metal discovered at the site were produced by casting, most of them probably in reusable stone moulds, flat (hoop, buckle) and two-piece moulds (the lunula pendant). Other methods may have included the lost wax method (the bell), wire drawing and coating of iron pieces with tin, lead-tin alloy or copper. Building III, where the crucible was discovered, did not contain other traces of working of non-ferrous metals. The scatter of metal lumps (building VI, trenches I and II, the wall) was not helpful for establishing the location of a workshop. In the small collection of non-ferrous metal finds from Davyd-Garadok the most remarkable categories are personal ornaments, dress fittings and fishing equipment. Another distinct group are iron pieces coated with non-ferrous metal (locks, the key, fitting), associated with domestic fittings. By far the most striking item is a gold finger-ring discovered in the wall of the settlement. It had the form of a plain band fitted with a hexagonal “basket” fashioned from sheet gold enclosing a dark red hemispherical setting. Rings with similar settings are known from 13–14th century layers at Grodna (N. N. Voronin 1954, p. 180–181, fig. 99:12.13) and 1130s-60s layers at Novgorod (M. V. Sedova 1981, p. 140, fig. 55). They differ from the specimen from Davyd-Garadok in having animal heads added at the base of the basket and by the form of the basket itself. A gold ring from Polatsk, Belarus, 12th century, with a plain band, is more similar to a plain band (Archealogěja 1993, p. 506). To judge from the distinctive shape of the terminal of the other finger-ring, which survived only in a number of small fragments, the piece was fashioned from a fragment of a band bracelet with oval-shaped terminals. Similar bracelets are noted at Novgorod, in layers dated to 1130s – end of the 13th century (M. V. Sedova 1981, p. 112–113, fig. 37:58). The fragment of a brass bracelet with thickened circular-sectioned terminals discovered close to coffin 12 is an ornament typical for older phases of the early medieval period. Its presence at Davyd-Garadok, which in its origins dates no earlier than the 12th century is still unclear. Analogous bracelets were discovered at a site at Zimne in Ukraine, dated to the 6th – 1st half of the 7th century (V. V. Aulich 1972, p. 66–70, pl. XIII:2.5–11), and at Haćki, woj. podlaskie, Poland, where they are dated, more narrowly, to the second half of the 6th –1st half of the 7th century (Z. Kobyliński, Z. Hensel 1993, p. 129, fig. 11a–e). Another interesting find is a lunula pendant discovered in building I. It belongs in the category of narrow-horned lunulae encountered with frequency in Ruthenia, widespread in the 11th–12th century (A. V. Uspenskaya 1967, p. 103). Unlike other known specimens the lunula from Davyd-Garadok is decorated on both faces, one of them with an ornament resembling an Arabic inscription. A slightly flattened pyriform bell with a cruciform incision was discovered in trench II. Analogous finds are known eg form Turau, Belarus, from layers dated to the late 10th – 11th century (P. F. Lysenko 1974, p. 45, 56, fig. 9:23), or from 12th century Polatsk (G. V. Štychov 1975, p. 71, fig. 33:10). At Novgorod ornaments of this type are noted from mid-10th until mid-12th century (M. V. Sedova 1981, p. 156, fig. 62:1–5). The brass buckle with a decorative trapezoid frame has no known close analogies. Plain trapezoid or rectangular buckles are known from Novgorod from the 12th–15th century. (M. V. Sedova 1981, p. 147, fig. 56). The function of the damaged flat hoop ornamented with transverse grooves is not wholly clear. It may have been an element of a brooch or buckle, of a type seen in mid-12th – end of 14th century pieces discovered at Novgorod (M. V. Sedova 1981, p. 89, eg fig. 31:9, 32:1). Net weights, lead and lead-tin pieces from building IV, have analogies both in material from 13th – 14th century medieval settlement centre Brest, Belarus (P. F. Lysenko 1985, p. 271, fig. 182:11–13) and 10th – 12th century Büderich, Kr. Neuss in Northern Rheinland-Westphalia (Das Reich 1992, p. 35, pl. on p. 32). Another lead weight, elongated in form, resembles pieces from Gniezno, woj. wielkopolskie, Poland, where they were probably used as weights attached to fishing nets or fishing-rods (B. Kostrzewski 1939, p. 64, pl. XLVI:1). A similar object was discovered at Drohiczyn, woj. podlaskie, Poland (PMA, V/1482). Materials recovered at Davyd-Garadok suggest that working non-ferrous metals was not practiced on a wide scale at this early medieval settlement centre. It seems less in evidence than antler-, wood- and leather-working. Local workshops satisfied local demand for simple ornaments and objects of daily use. The inventory of non-ferrous find from Davyd-Garadok , in comparison to materials form Turau, Minsk, or Navahrudak/Nowogródek, is modest. Differences in the level of working of non-ferrous metals in comparison to the situation at Turau and Pinsk were noticed already by P. F. Lysenko who nevertheless assumes the existence of local production of these metals at Davyd-Garadok (P. F. Lysenko 1974, p. 140, 189).
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