New Finds from the Roman Period from Osówka, Lublin County
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Submission date: 2020-04-03
Final revision date: 2020-04-19
Acceptance date: 2020-05-16
Publication date: 2020-12-31
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2020;LXXI(71):384–388
Until now, Osówka (Fig. 1) has been known from the scant mention by Stefan Nosek who described an accidentally discovered grave of the Przeworsk Culture. In 1994, attempts were made to localise the site, but they proved unsuccessful. The breakthrough came in 2008 thanks to three bronze brooches that were handed over to Ass. Prof. Piotr Łuczkiewicz from the Institute of Archaeology at Maria Curie-Skłodowska University. In the same year, a local site inspection was carried out to further verify the find. During exploration of the site, several fragments of pottery were found, including possibly shards of Przeworsk Culture vessels. The brooches from Osówka were typologically identified as a late form of the Almgren 41 type, an Almgren 96 type, and a provincial Roman knee brooch of the Almgren 247 type. Almgren 41 brooches are widespread in Wielbark Culture areas and much less common in Przeworsk Culture areas. Such brooches are traditionally dated to the late stage of phase B2 and above all to phases B2/C1 or B2/C1–C1a. Based on size, the Osówka copy (Fig. 2:a) was determined as type X1 according to the classification proposed by Jan Schuster. This is an interregional form mostly found in female burials. Almgren 96 brooches (Fig. 2:b) are typical of the Wielbark Culture, however, in much smaller numbers they also appear in the Przeworsk Culture area. The type is the guiding form of the B2/C1 phase. The third brooch (Fig. 2:c), having a semi-circular head plate ornamented with a so-called wolf teeth pattern should be assigned to type 13D after Werner Jobst or to variant 3.12.1 according to the classification by Emilie Riha. These types of brooches are characteristic of the Danube and Rhine provinces of the Roman Empire where were in use mostly in the 2nd and 3rd century CE. Osówka brooches confirm that that the site was a Roman Period cemetery. The grave published by Stefan Nosek proves that in phase B2 it was used by a local Przeworsk community. Three brooches found in 2008 are evidence that the cemetery remained in use in phase B2/C1. However, it is very difficult to determine its cultural affiliation in this phase. In eastern Poland (i.e. right-bank Mazovia, Podlachia, and the Lublin Region) at the turn of the early and late Roman Period, the current Przeworsk settlement was gradually replaced by the Wielbark settlement.