Sadłowo – Turning a New Life in the Study of Wielbark Culture Settlement in Dobrzyń Land
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Instytut Archeologii UMK w Toruniu, ul. Szosa Chełmińska 44/48, 87-100 Toruń
Muzeum Ziemi Dobrzyńskiej w Rypinie, ul. Warszawska 20, 87-500 Rypin
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2013;LXIV(64):172–190
The Roman Period cemetery, published under the name of the village of Sadłowo, is noted as a site of two outstanding Roman imports: a terra sigillata bowl and a glass vessel discovered in 1927 during the construction of a narrow gauge railway (W. Antoniewicz 1930; J. Andrzejowski 2003). An archaeological surface investigation made in 2011 (incl. metal detection) identified the location of the cemetery at Nowe Sadłowo, distr. Rypin, some 600 m south-west of the village buildings, to the south of the main road running from Sadłowo to Rypin (A. Kurpiewski, J. Lewandowska, in print). Much of the site has been lost to a gravel mine, in 1970s converted to farmland, and at present occupies a rectangular area of 200×40–60 m (Fig. 1). Archaeological excavation commenced in the autumn of 2012 focused on the central, most elevated part of the site. A total of c. 130 m² was investigated, exposing 27 features: 21 graves of Wielbark Culture, two medieval features and four features not determined as to function and chronology. All the graves were detected underneath the humus, their uppermost level only slightly disturbed by ploughing. The grave-field is biritual, with five inhumation and sixteen cremation graves (three urned and 13 pit graves). The inhumation burials were deposited, in keeping to the practices observed at other Wielbark Culture cemeteries, in pits with N-S alignment. Close to 150 small finds were excavated, dated to the Roman Period: 31 brooches, 10 complete and five fragmented buckles, two strap ends, 10 belt mounts, seven antler combs, four bracelet fragments, four clay spindlewhorls, two needles, 25 glass and amber beads, four pendants (gold, silver and iron) and a fragment of a denarius. With only a small fragment of the cemetery investigated its conclusive chronological analysis is unfeasible. The earliest of the excavated graves, no. 18, held a type A 41 brooch, dated to phase B2/C1. Other objects from the same phase were all stray finds (types A 41, A 95/96, A 128 brooches, fragments of a snake-headed bracelet). Grave 2 was assigned to phase B2/C1–C1a by the presence in its inventory of a type A 95 brooch, it also held another brooch, type A 162. Two assemblages were dated to the onset of the Late Roman Period (C1a) by e.g., a type AD18 buckle (grave 9) and brooches types A 161 and AD17 (grave 16). Two graves (10 and 15) were dated broadly to phase C1. Four graves belong in phase C1b–C2. Grave 19 held a brooch, type A 167, and a buckle, type AD29; in grave 8 there was e.g., a buckle, type AB7, a silver brooch, type A 167, with multiple coils of beaded wire; in grave 18 a brooch type A 167 was found together with a type AE13 specimen, and in grave 4 a brooch type A 167 with single coils of beaded wire, was discovered in company of a buckle, group AH, with an oval, unthickened frame.