Bronze Age and Roman Age Finds from Site 35 at Dzierżysław, Głubczyce County
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Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, ul. Gołębia 11, PL 31-007 Kraków
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2013;LXIV(64):161–172
Site 35 at Dzierżysław, distr. Głubczyce, lies in the loess Głubczyce Plateau close to the Morawka River valley bottom. An archaeological excavation carried out in 1997–2005 resulted in the discovery of relics of settlement, Palaeolithic through to the Roman Period (M. Połtowicz 2000; B. Ginter, M. Połtowicz 2001; 2002; 2004a; 2004b; 2006; B. Ginter, M. Połtowicz-Bobak 2009). The article reports on the materials from the younger phases of settlement associated with the Nowa Cerekwia Group, Lusatian Culture and Przeworsk Culture. The phase of settlement linked with the Nowa Cerekwia Group is represented by a single feature (no. 1) only, containing a small quantity of vessel fragments, as wekk as by a small number of fragments of pottery recovered from the culture deposit. These finds have analogies in other sites of the Nowa Cerekwia Group in Upper Silesia, dated to Bronze Age I. Lusatian Culture occupation is documented by a slightly larger quantity of finds, all of them pottery, recovered from the culture deposit or re-deposited within Przeworsk Culture features. Of relevance for their dating is the presence of fragments of vessels decorated on their lower body with horizontal engraved lines. This type of ornament is characteristic for wares dated to Bronze Age III, for example, in the cemetery at Kietrz. Features 2 and 3 were attributed to the Przeworsk Culture as well as a significant amount of the material from the culture deposit. These are mostly fragments of hand-built pottery. The group may be separated into two basic groups – coarse wares and thin-walled ceramics with a black, smoothed surface. This pottery corresponds to technological groups I and II in the classification system of K. Godłowski (1977, p. 164, 166–167). The dominant form of the coarse ware are jar-like and bowl-like vessels, whereas tableware is represented chiefly by assorted bowls and cups. One of the more outstanding Przeworsk Culture artefacts is a bone comb with an openwork ornament recovered from feature 2 (Fig. 5:1). It has many analogies in the basin of the Havel River, the Bohemian Basin, and in the western zone of Przeworsk Culture territory. It may be dated to between phase B1 and phase B2/C1 (S. W. Teuber 2005, p. 187–190). Equally interesting is a bone dress pin with an unprofiled head, from feature 3 (Fig. 6:1). Similar forms are known from Przeworsk Culture settlements in Upper Silesia, the Bohemian Basin, from the basin of the Elbe River and the Wielbark Culture territory (B. Beckmann 1966; Z. Brońska 1993, p. 56; R. Wołągiewicz 1984, p. 46; A. Dulkiewicz 2009). Bone dress pins are dated to phase B1b through to phase C1, their variant with an unprofiled head given a later dating (K. Godłowski 1977, p. 42). Also attributable to the Przeworsk Culture is a weaving tablet made of bone, two clay beads, and two whetstones (Fig. 5:2.3.5, 6:16.17), less useful for refining the chronology of the settlement. Analysis of the finds inventory from site 35 at Dzierżysław indicates that prehistoric settlement here unfolded in three phases. The first of phase is datable to Bronze Age I, the second, to Bronze Age III, the last – to the Early Roman Period.