Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Settlement at Tominy, Opatów County
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Muzeum Mazowieckie w Płocku, ul. Tumska 8, PL 09-402 Płock
Państwowe Muzeum Archeologiczne w Warszawie, ul. Długa 52, PL 00-241 Warszawa
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2013;LXIV(64):97–136
Site 5 at Tominy lies to the north of the Sandomierz Highland (Fig. 1) on the south-eastern edge of the Foreland of Iłża (J. Kondracki 2002, fig. 38; M. Szeliga, A. Zakościelna 2009, p. 9), on an elevation built of glacial sands and boulder clay (Fig. 2). Traces of occupation were identified at 178–184 m ASL. In the immediate vicinity of the site are found carbonate rocks of Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian) age. Discovered by Janusz Budziszewski in 1982 the site was investigated by test trenches in 2004 (Aleksandra Sujecka and Józef Bednarczyk) and attributed to the Funnel Beaker Culture. In 2006 it came under an area excavation (Zbigniew Miecznikowski and Sławomir Sałaciński; Fig. 3, 4). Also investigated that year were nearby sites 6 and 17 at Tominy with a multi-phase culture deposit (Marcin Szeliga, Anna Zakościelna, Tadeusz Wiśniewski). The main aim of the archaeological excavation made at Tominy 5 was to salvage the area’s archaeology before it came under development associated with the construction of a ring road for Ożarów. A total of 10000 m2 were investigated, identifying 127 archaeological features (Fig. 5, 9–17). The earliest occupation is documented by flint and pottery finds datable to the Early Neolithic attributed to Linear Pottery Cultures. This is material analogical to the one excavated at Tominy 6, published by M. Szeliga and A. Zakościelna (2009), the site of a Linear Band Pottery Culture settlement from its Musical Note Pottery phase and from the stage transitional to Želiezovce Phase. Some of the finds from Tominy 6 suggest strong links with the circle of eastern Linear Band Pottery Cultures from the Slovak-Hungarian border zone, manifested by pottery ornamentation styles and objects made of Carpathian obsidian (M. Szeliga, A. Zakościelna 2009, p. 14). Later occupation during the Neolithic is documented by a fragment of a Funnel Beaker Culture settlement, and later still, by a small number of features attributed to the Early Bronze Mierzanowice Culture, and traces of occupation by the people of Trzciniec Culture and Lusatian Culture. The assemblage recovered at Tominy 5 is dominated by pottery (Fig. 33–41) and flint artifacts (Fig. 20–32, Table 1–3) of the Funnel Beaker Culture. A more outstanding archaeological feature (No. 23) associated with this culture had a sub-rectangular plan, 100×150 m at the level of detection, and a depth of 100 cm (Fig. 6–8). It yielded a funnel beaker, a pottery fragment, an amphora, a clay spindlewhorl and flint flakes. Other Funnel Beaker Culture features (e.g., Nos. 53, 54, 90–93) are typical household pits, often recorded in settlements of this culture. The settlement identified at Tominy 5 belongs to the south-eastern group of Funnel Beaker Culture which resided in the region between 3900/3800 and 2900/2800 BC (P. Włodarczak 2006, p. 57–59; A. Uzarowicz-Chmielewska, B. Sałacińska 2013, p. 232). An even more outstanding feature was No. 68 (Fig. 18, 19). It appeared in plan as a concentration of brown-yellow clay interspersed with limestone rubble and broken flint nodules. At the level of detection it had a width of 280 cm and a depth of 260 cm. Because of the shape of its cross-section and the presence of limestone and flint rubble in its fill the feature was interpreted tentatively as a pit left behind from flint extraction. Evidence on shaft mining of siliceous rocks during the Early Bronze Age was identified at nearby Ożarów and Gliniany by Stefan Krukowski (1890–1982) and an investigation was made in early 1980s by J. Budziszewski (1980, p. 601–605; 2008, p. 34, 36). Other features of similar description identified at Tominy 5 (Nos. 39, 45, 78 and 79) were much less well preserved. By J. Budziszewski (Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw) feature no. 68 is interpreted tentatively as a natural, karstic, formation. This view has been supported by the geomorphologist Piotr Szwarczewski (University of Warsaw, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies), presumably a karstic funnel-shaped sink hole. The fieldwork at Tominy has brought in new data on the prehistoric settlement in the foreland of the Sandomierz Highland. The post-excavation analysis of the archaeological record from site 5 is also a complement to other published assemblages from the Ożarów ring road.