Material from a Lusatian culture cemetery at Chojno-Golejewko, distr. Rawicz, from the Aleksander Guttman collection
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Państwowe Muzeum Archeologiczne w Warszawie, ul. Długa 52, 00-241 Warszawa
Publication date: 2005-12-31
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2005;LVII(57):93-100
The cremation cemetery situated between the villages of Chojno and Golejewko, distr. Rawicz, woj. wielkopolskie (Fig. 1), is one of the most striking and most richly furnished grave-fields of the Lusatian culture people in Wielkopolska, in use starting from BA IV until the Early PreRoman Period. The site, discovered during the second half of the 19th century, is known almost entirely from amateur investigation by local collectors who recovered the better preserved artefacts directly from the site or bought them from the peasants. In this way probably some 2000 graves were dug up, their contents subsequently became dispersed in a few dozen private collections in Poland and abroad. Eventually many of these artefacts were offered or sold to the Archaeological Museum in Poznań and the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw. They were later analysed and published by Z. Woźniak (1959, p. 31–116). Other objects from the Chojno-Golejewko cemetery forming the Aleksander Guttmann collection fared differently. In 1919 one Colonel Tadeusz Jaworowski presented to the National Museum in Warsaw the following set: 12 pottery vessels – one of them a painted vase – and a number of bronzes (a bead, a ring, necklace fragments, a razor, fragments of bronze sheet, perhaps from two further razors), iron finds (a necklace?, a ring, two bracelets) and amber (a large bead) (Fig. 2–6). The objects were not accompanied by any documentation to help link them to particular grave assemblages and nothing can be learnt from the available sources about their collector or the Colonel. The Gutmann collection set passed to the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw (PMA/III/65) only in 1987, but not before losing two vessels, probably during World War II. The set has helped to fill out the existing record of the cemetery at Chojno-Golejewko. Next to pieces which have numerous analogies among the already known material it includes a number of items previously not recorded at Chojno-Golejewko, namely, a bronze trapezoidal razor with a loop, attributed to the local type Gliniany, datable to BA IV, and two bracelets – a bronze and an iron specimen, fashioned from narrow strips of plano-convex sheet. The bronze bracelet is dated to BA IV – Hallstatt, and the iron piece is associated with Early Iron Age. All the objects from the Aleksander Guttmann collection fit the broad chronological framework determined for the cemetery at Chojno-Golejewko.
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