Another Assessment of “the First Danubian Culture Graves from Poland. Use-wear Analysis of Flint Inventories from Lublin-Volhynian Culture Graves at Złota, Site Grodzisko II
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Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego ul. S. Moniuszki 10 PL 35-015 Rzeszów
Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej pl. M. Curie-Skłodowskiej 4 PL 20-031 Lublin
Wiadomości Archeologiczne 2017;LXVIII:107–118
Archaeological materials from graves of the Lublin-Volhynian Culture at Złota, Sandomierz County were published in the past at least twice, reported on briefly by Józef Żurowski (1930; 1932), and published comprehensively – complete with osteology, archaeozoology and malacology analyses and 14C dates – by Barbara Sałacińska and Anna Zakościelna (2007). The present study reports on insights from the analysis of use-wear on flints from grave inventories no. 101 and 122 deriving from site Grodzisko II at Złota (Fig. 1). The analysis focused on seven flint objects. Two of these survived from the original total of 11 flint objects found in grave 101 (Fig. 2): a retouched dagger on a macrolithic blade (Fig. 3) and an endscraper on a blade (Fig. 4). Grave 122, interpreted as a cenotaph (Fig. 5), contributed five flints: three blades (Fig. 6:1.2, 7:1), a blade-like flake (Fig. 7:2) and a truncation (Fig. 8). All of them were examined for the presence of use-wear. Possibly the most remarkable in this group is the dagger on a retouched blade from grave 101. The use-wear identified on its surface was caused by the use of the lateral edges of this tool for scraping hide and/or plants (Fig. 3, 9:3.4). Additionally, the dagger appears to have been kept in a sheath (Fig. 9:1). Not to be discounted either is the presence of a handle made of an organic material (Fig. 9:2), similar to the one known from a flint dagger found at Charavines in France (Fig. 10). The endscraper from the same grave inventories had been used as a knife for cutting meat (Fig. 4). Flints belonging to the grave inventory 122 appear to have been used in somewhat different activities namely, in firemaking – the truncation (Fig. 8), and working wood – the blade-like flake (Fig. 7:2). Two blades (Fig. 6:1, 7:1) presumably were used in processing animal carcasses, but use-wear observed on them is insufficiently developed to make this conclusion definitive. The investigated assemblage is not the first group of flint tools assigned to the Lublin-Volhynian Culture which was subjected to use-wear analysis. Despite the small size of this series a comparison made of the analysis results revealed a degree of convergence. There was similarity both in how daggers were used as macrolithic scrapers, may have been provided with a handle and/or a sheath. Tools with similar use-wear surfaced at Książnice 2 and Strzyżów 2A. Also worth noting is the frequently observed tradition of offering to the dead on their last journey ‘flint tools’ in the form of unretouched blades which apparently served as knives. This type of behaviour is documented by the grave inventory 122 from Złota, and also, by other inventories, for example, the grave inventory 1/1961 at Strzyżów IA, and by all the funeral features with flint objects in site Strzyżów 2A (graves nos. 3, 4, 5, 6).